Isnin, 16 Mei 2011

KING MONGKUT

ot to be confused with Vajiravudh (reigning title Phra Mongkut Klao Chaoyuhua).
Mongkut
King Rama IV
King of Siam
Reign 1 April 1851 – 1 October 1868
(17 years, 183 days)
Coronation 2 April 1851
Predecessor Jessadabodindra (Rama III)
Successor Chulalongkorn (Rama V)
Second King Pinklao

Spouse Queen Somanas Vadhanavadi (1851)
Queen Debsirindra (1851-1861)
Princess Pannarai (1861 - 1868)
Father Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
Mother Srisuriyendra
Born 18 October 1804
Bangkok, Siam
Died 1 October 1868 (aged 63)
Bangkok, Siam
Signature
Religion Theravada Buddhism
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthramaha Mongkut Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหามงกุฎฯ พระจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama IV, known in foreign countries[which?] as King Mongkut (18 October 1804 – 1 October 1868), was the fourth monarch of Siam (Thailand) under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1851-1868. He was one of the most revered monarchs of the country.
Outside of Thailand, he is best-known as the King in the 1951 play and 1956 film The King and I, based on the 1946 film Anna and the King of Siam – in turn based on the 1944 novel about Anna Leonowens' years at his court, from 1862 to 1867. [1][2] [3] [4][5]
During his reign, the pressure of Western expansionism was felt for the first time in Siam. Mongkut embraced Western innovations and initiated the modernization of Siam, both in technology and culture—earning him the nickname "The Father of Science and Technology" in Siam.
Mongkut was also known for his appointment of his brother, Prince Chutamani, as vice-king. Prince Chutamani was crowned in 1851 as King Pinklao. Mongkut himself assured the country that Pinklao should be respected with equal honor to himself. Mongkut's reign was also the time when the power of the House of Bunnag reached its zenith and became the most powerful noble family of Siam.

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[edit] Early life

Mongkut was the second son of to Prince Isarasundhorn, son of Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first Chakri king of Siam, and Princess Bunreod; he was born in 1804 at the Old (Thonburi) Palace. He was later joined by his brother Prince Chutamani, who was born in 1808. In 1809, Prince Isarasundhorn was crowned as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai. The prince himself was nine at the time and they all moved to the Grand Palace.

[edit] Monastic Life and Thammayut sect

In 1824, at age 20, Mongkut became a Buddhist monk, according to Siamese tradition that men aged 20 should become monks, with the ordination name of Vajirañāṇo. However, the same year, his father Buddha Loetla Nabhalai died. According to succession traditions, Mongkut was to be crowned the next king. However, the nobility instead put the influential Prince Jessadabodindra, his half-brother, on the throne. Perceiving that the throne was irredeemable, Mongkut chose to retain his monastic status to avoid political intrigues.
Mongkut became one of the members of the royal family who devoted his life to religion. He travelled the country as a monk and saw the relaxation of the rules of Pali Canon among the Siamese monks he met, which he considered inappropriate. In 1829, at Phetchaburi, he met a monk named Buddhawangso who strictly followed the canon. Vajirayan admired Buddhawangso for his obedience to the canon, and this inspired him to pursue his religious reforms.
Vajirayan established the Thammayut Nikaya, or Thammayut, sect in 1833. This sect reinforced the canon law. Mongkut's son Chulalongkorn granted the Thammayut sect royal recognition in 1902 through the Ecclesiastical Polity Act; it became one of the two major Buddhist denominations in modern Thailand. In 1836, he became the first abbot of Wat Bowonniwet, which is sponsored by the royal family to this day. During his time as a monk, Bhikkhu Vajirañāṇo discovered Western knowledge, studying Latin, English, and astronomy with missionaries and sailors.
King Mongkut would later be noted for his excellent command of English, although it is said that his younger brother, Vice-King Pinklao, could speak it even better.

[edit] Reign as King

Reliefs of King Mongkut's Privy seal and signature
Accounts vary about Jessadabodindra's intentions regarding the succession. It is recorded that Jessadabodindra verbally dismissed the royal princes from succession for various reasons; Prince Mongkut was dismissed for encouraging monks to dress in the Mon style.
Some said that, however, Jessadabodindra wished his throne to be passed to his son, Prince Annop, and that he gave his bracelet which had been passed down from Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke to the prince. However, Dis Bunnak switched the bracelet for a forged one, thus preventing Annop from inheriting the throne.
Prince Mongkut was indeed supported by a pro-British, Dis Bunnak, the Samuha Kalahom, or Armed Force Department's president, the most powerful noble during the reign of Rama III. Bunnak sent his men to perform the leaving-from-monk-status ceremony for Prince Mongkut even before Jessadabodindra's death. With the support of powerful nobility, Mongkut's ascension to the throne was ensured.
After his twenty-seven years of pilgrimage, King Mongkut ascended the throne in 1851, aged 47. He took the name Phra Chom Klao, although foreigners continued to call him King Mongkut. The king was well-known among the foreigners particularly some British officers, as a pro-British. Sir James Brooke, a British delegation, even praised him 'our own king', and showed his support of him as a new king of Siam.[6]
His awareness of the threat from the British and French imperial powers, led him to institute many innovative activities. He ordered the nobility to wear shirts while attending his court; this was to show that Siam was no longer barbaric from the Western point of view.[7]
However, Mongkut's own astrological calculations pointed out that his brother, Prince Isaret, was as well favored as himself to be the monarch. So, Mongkut then crowned his brother as King Pinklao, the second king. As a prince, Pinklao was known for his abilities in foreign languages and relations. Mongkut also raised his supporter Dis Bunnak to Somdet Chao Phraya Borom Maha Prayurawongse (Somdet Chao Phraya was the highest rank of nobility on a par with royalty) and made him his regent kingdom-wide. Mongkut also appointed Dis Bunnak's brother, Tat, as Somdet Chao Phraya Borom Maha Pichaiyat, as his regent in Bangkok. As the result, the administrative power of Siam rested largely in the hands of the two Bunnaks, Dis and Tat.
Upon his coronation, Mongkut married his first wife, Queen Somanat. However, Queen Somanat died in the same year. He then married his half-grandniece, Mom Chao Rampoei Siriwongse, later Queen Debsirindra.

[edit] Shan campaigns

Chakri Monarchs
Emblem of the House of Chakri.svg
Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
Jessadabodindra
Mongkut
Chulalongkorn
Vajiravudh
Prajadhipok
Ananda Mahidol
Bhumibol Adulyadej
v · d · e
In 1849, there were upheavals in the Shan state of Kengtung and Chiang Hung kingdom in response to weakened Burmese influence. However, the two states then fought each other and Chiang Hung sought Siamese support. Jessadabodindra saw this as an opportunity to gain control over Shan states but he died in 1851 before this plan was realized. In 1852, Chiang Hung submitted the request again. Mongkut sent Siamese troops northwards but the armies were turned aside by the mountainous highlands. In 1855 the Siamese marched again and reached Kengtung – though with even greater difficulty. They laid siege on Kengtung for 21 days.[8] However, the resources of the Siamese army ran out and the army had to retreat.

[edit] Cultural Reforms

[edit] Introducing Western Geography

Accompanying the influx of Western visitors to Siam was the notion of a round earth. By many Siamese, this was difficult to accept, particularly by religious standards, because Buddhist scripture described earth as being flat.[9] The Traiphum, which was a geo-astrological map created before the arrival of Westerners, described “…a path between two mountain ranges through which the stars, planets, moon and sun pass." [9] Religious scholars usually concluded that Buddhist scriptures “…were meant to be taken literally only when it came to matters of spiritual truth; details of natural science are revealed figuratively and allegorically.”[9] Mongkut claimed to have abandoned the Traiphum cosmology before 1836.[10] He claimed that he already knew of the round state of earth 15 years before the arrival of American missionaries, but the debate about earth’s shape remained an issue for Siamese intellectuals throughout the 1800s.[11]
Beginning in the early 1820s, two revolutions (both initiated by Mongkut during his monkhood) were taking place. Firstly, he fought for the people to embrace modern geography, among other sciences considered “Western.” Secondly he sought reform in Buddhism and, as a result, a new sect was created in Siamese Theravada Buddhism. Both revolutions challenged the purity and validity of the Buddhist order as it was practiced in Siam at the time.[12] A strong theme in Mongkut’s movement was that, “…true Buddhism was supposed to refrain from worldly matters and confine itself to spiritual and moral affairs.”[13] Mongkut eventually came to power in 1851, as did his colleagues who had the same progressive mission. From that point on, Siam was more quickly embracing modernization.[14]

[edit] Social Changes

1852 saw an influx of English and American missionaries into Siam as Mongkut hired them to teach the English language to the princes. He also hired Western mercenaries to train Siamese troops in Western style. In Bangkok, American Dan Beach Bradley had already reformed the printing and then resumed the publishing of Siam's first newspaper, the Bangkok Recorder. However, the missionaries were not as successful when it came to making religious conversions. Reportedly, King Mongkut once remarked to a Christian missionary friend: "What you teach us to do is admirable, but what you teach us to believe is foolish".[15]
However, Mongkut didn't abandon the traditional culture of Siam. In 1852, he ordered the nobles of the court to wear upper garments. Previously, Siamese nobles were forbidden to wear any shirts to prevent them from hiding any weapons in it and met the king bare-chested. The practice was criticized by Westerners and so Mongkut ended it.
For Buddhism, Mongkut pioneered the rehabilitation of various temples. He also began the Magha Puja (มาฆบูชา) festival in the full moon of the third lunar month, to celebrate Buddha's announcement of his main principles. And he instigated the Recompilation of Tripitaka in Siam according to Theravada traditions. He also formally established the Thammayut sect as a rightful branch of Theravada.
Mongkut also improved women's rights in Siam. He released a large number of royal concubines to find their own husbands, in contrast to how his story has been dramatized. He banned forced marriages of all kinds and the selling of one's wife to pay off a debt.
In contrast to the previous king, Jessadabodindra, Mongkut didn't see the importance of sending envoys to the Qing dynasty court, as the mission symbolised Siam's subjection to the Qing emperors and because the Qing dynasty was then not so powerful as it had once been, as it was itself threatened by Western powers.

[edit] The Bowring Treaty

John Bowring, British Governor of Hong Kong, was known in Siam for his Bowring Treaty
In 1854, John Bowring, the Governor of Hong Kong in the name of Victoria of United Kingdom, came to Siam to negotiate a treaty. For the first time Siam had to deal seriously with international laws. Prayurawongse negotiated on the behalf of the Siamese. The result was the Bowring Treaty, which was regarded as an unequal treaty imposed by the British Empire on Siam. The main principle of the treaty was to abolish the Royal Storage (พระคลังสินค้า), which since Ayutthaya's times held the monopoly on foreign trade. The Royal Storage had been the source of Ayutthaya's prosperity as it collected immense taxation on foreign traders, including the taxation according to the width of the galleon and the tithe. Western products had to go through a series of tax barriers to reach Siamese people.
The Europeans had been attempting to undo this monopoly for a long time but no serious measures had been taken. For Siamese people, trading with foreigners subjected them to severe punishment. The taxation was partially reduced in the Burney Treaty. However, in the world of liberalism of the nineteenth century, such unequal and government-interfered trade was disappearing.
The abolition of such trade barriers replaced Siamese commerce with free trade. Import taxation was reduced to 3% and could only be collected once. This, of course, was a blow on the national revenue. However, this led to dramatic growth of commercial sectors as common people gained access to foreign trade. Never before in Siam could agricultural products be for sale and exports rather than subsistence farming (Before Bowring, those who traded rice with foreigners would be executed for treason). People rushed to acquire vast, previously empty fields to grow rice and the competition eventually resulted in the lands ending up in the hands of nobility.
The Bowring Treaty also had a legal impact. Due to the horror of the Nakorn Bala methods of torture in judicial proceedings, the British chose not to be tried under the Siamese system, securing a grant of extraterritoriality; the British in Siam were therefore subject only to British law, while the Siamese in Britain enjoyed no reciprocal privilege.
More treaties were then made with other powers, further undermining national revenue and legal rights. The Bowring treaty proved to be the economic and social revolution of Siam. Mongkut's reign saw immense commercial activities in Siam for the first time, which led to the introduction of coinage in 1860. The first industries in Siam were rice milling and sugar production. Infrastructure was improved; there was a great deal of paving of roads and canal digging – for transport and water reservoirs for plantations.

[edit] Anna Leonowens

The King with his heir: Prince Chulalongkorn, both in Naval uniforms.
In 1862, recommended by Tan Kim Ching in Singapore, an English woman named Anna Leonowens, whose influence was later the subject of great Thai controversy, was hired by the court. It is still debated how much this affected the worldview of one of his sons, Prince Chulalongkorn, who succeeded to the throne. Her story would become the inspiration for the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The King and I, as well as the Hollywood movies of the same title, which, because of their incorrect historical references and disrespectful treatment of King Mongkut, were initially banned in Thailand as the Thai government and people considered them to be lèse majesté. To correct the record, well-known Thai intellectuals Seni and Kukrit Pramoj in 1948 wrote The King of Siam Speaks. The Pramoj brothers sent their manuscript to the American politician and diplomat Abbot Low Moffat (1901–1996), who drew on it for his 1961 biography, Mongkut the King of Siam. Moffat donated the Pramoj manuscript to the United States Library of Congress in 1961. (Southeast Asian Collection, Asian Division, Library of Congress)
Anna claimed that her conversations with Prince Chulalongkorn about human freedom, and her relating to him the story of Uncle Tom's Cabin, became the inspiration for his abolition of slavery almost 40 years later. It should be noted, however, that the slavery system in Siam was very different from that in the United States. Slavery in Thailand was often voluntary and due to economic condition. One could be punished for torturing slaves in Siam and some slaves could buy their freedom. Western scholars and observers have commented that Siamese slaves were treated better than European servants.[16]

[edit] Death and Legacy

[edit] The Solar Eclipse at Wakor

During his monkhood, Mongkut studied both indigenous astrology and English texts on Western astronomy and mathematics, hence developing his skills in astronomical measurement.[17] One way that he honed his mastery of astronomy, aside from the accurate prediction of the Wakor solar eclipse, was changing the official Buddhist calendar, “which was seriously miscalculated and the times for auspicious moments were incorrect.” [18] In 1868, he invited high-ranking European and Siamese officials to accompany him to Wakor village in Prachuap Khiri Khan province, south of Bangkok, where the solar eclipse that was to occur on 18 August could be best viewed as a total eclipse.[19] Sir Harry Ord, the British Governor of Straits Settlements from Singapore, was among those who were invited.[20] King Mongkut predicted the solar eclipse, at (in his own words) "East Greenwich longitude 99 degrees 42' and latitude North 11 degrees 39'." King Mongkut's calculations proved accurate.[21] When he made calculations on the Wakor solar eclipse that was to occur, he used the Thai system of measuring time (mong and baht), but he implemented the Western method of longitude and latitude when he determined where on earth the eclipse would best be viewed.[22] Upon returning from his journey to Wakor, he condemned the court astrologers “for their […] stupid statements because of their negligence of his detailed prediction and their inattention to measurement and calculation by modern instruments.”[23] During the expedition, King Mongkut and Prince Chulalongkorn were infected with malaria. The king died six weeks later in the capital, and was succeeded by his son, who survived the malaria.[24]
It has been argued that the assimilation of Western geography and astronomy into 19th century Siam "proved that Siam equaled the West in terms of knowledge, and therefore the imperialists' claim that Siam was uncivilized and had to be colonized was unreasonable."[25] This suggests that the Western form of these sciences may have saved Siam from actually being colonized by Western powers.

[edit] Education Reform

As the king of Siam, Mongkut urged his royal relatives to have “a European-style education.”[26] The missionaries, as teachers, taught modern geography and astronomy, among other subjects.[27] Six years after Mongkut’s death, the first Thai geography book was published in 1874, called Phumanithet by J.W. Van Dyke.[28] However, geography was only taught in some schools, mainly those that were run by American missionaries with English programs for upper secondary students.[29] Thongchai Winichakul argues that Mongkut's efforts to popularize Western geography helped bring reform to education in Siam.

[edit] Elephant Story

Contrary to popular belief, King Mongkut did not offer a herd of war elephants to President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War for use against the Confederacy. He did, however, offer to send some domesticated elephants to President James Buchanan, to use as beasts of burden and means of transportation. The royal letter of February 14, 1861, which was written even before the Civil War started, took some time to arrive in Washington DC, and by the time it reached its destination, President Buchanan was not in office any longer. (Text of the royal letter here [2]. Although the Smithsonian Institution describes it as the "translation", in fact it was written by the King himself in his "self-educated" English.)[citation needed] Lincoln, who succeeded Buchanan, is said to have been asked what the elephants could be used for, and in reply he said that he did not know, unless "they were used to stamp out the rebellion."[3] However, in his replying letter dated February 3, 1862 [4] Lincoln did not mention anything about the Civil War. The President merely politely declined to accept King Mongkut's proposal, explaining to the King that the American climate might not be suitable for elephants and that American steam engines could also be used as beasts of burden and means of transportation. [5][6]
A century later, during his state visit to the US, King Bhumibol of Thailand, who is Mongkut's great-grandson, referred to this event in his address before the US Congress on June 29, 1960. He said, "my great-grandfather offered to send the President and Congress elephants to be turned loose in the uncultivated land of America for breeding purposes. That offer was made with no other objective than to provide a friend with what he lacks, in the same spirit in which the American aid program is likewise offered." [7]

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