Ahad, 5 Jun 2011

HISTORY CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY.

Chulalongkorn University (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย) (usually abbreviated as "Chula") is the oldest university in Thailand[2] and has long been considered the country's most prestigious university.[3] It now has nineteen faculties and institutes. Regarded as the best and most selective university in Thailand, it consistently attracts top students from around the country. It is named after King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), and was established by his son and successor King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) in 1917 by combining the Royal Pages School and the College of Medicine.
Its campus occupies a vast area in downtown Bangkok, close to the popular teenagers' hangout, Siam Square, and adjacent to the most prestigious and private sports club, The Royal Bangkok Sports Club. The symbol of the University is the Phra Kiao, a royal insignia. Diplomas were traditionally handed out at graduation by the King of Thailand, created and begun by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII). But at present, King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) delegates the role to one of his daughters, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn.
During the years 1973-1977 Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn was a student at the University, becoming the first member of the Thai Royal Family to graduate from a Thai university. Prior to that, Thai royals had always studied abroad.

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[edit] History

The demands of officials specialized in various fields by the government in the late 19th century Siam was an aftermath of King Chulalongkorn’s bureaucratic reforms, which aimed to transform the feudal Thai society into a modernized state. In 1899, the king founded the Civil Service Training School (Thai: โรงเรียนสำหรับฝึกหัดวิชาข้าราชการฝ่ายพลเรือน) near the northern gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from the school would became royal pages. Being royal pages, he must learn how to administrate organization by working closely with the king, which is a traditional way of entrance to Siamese bureaucracy. After being royal pages, he would then served in the Mahattai Ministry or other government ministries.
On April 1, 1902[4] the king thought the name of the school should be renamed to increase dignity of students and graduates. Hence the name Royal Pages School (Thai: โรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก) was later used. Later, on January 1, 1911,[5] King Vajiravudh renamed the school again to Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn (Thai: โรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) as a memorial to his father and moved the school to Windsor Palace (Thai: วังวินด์เซอร์ หรือวังใหม่) in the Pathumwan district.
The academic demands, however, increased all over the country as a whole as Siam was modernized. King Vajiravudh then took the remaining funds of Chulalongkorn’s Royal Equestrian Statue construction, which was collected from people. Then combined with his own funds to subsidize the construction of a university campus. The king organized various schools around the city proper into the Chulalongkorn's College. The college offered 8 majors taught by 5 schools including;
King Rama VI then realized that the education should be provided to all people not only for the bureaucrats. On March 26, 1917, the college was upgraded to the Chulalongkorn University (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย),[6] and the schools were transformed into four faculties;
  • Faculty of Arts and Sciences
  • Faculty of Public Administration
  • Faculty of Engineering
  • Faculty of Medicine
Maha Chulalongkorn Building, Faculty of Arts
The university firstly granted certificates to its graduates. The education for a degree was then prepared. The Rockefeller Foundation reorganized the curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine. In 1923, the Faculty of Medicine became the first faculty to accept students from the secondary education (known as Mattayom). The remaining faculties then followed suit. After the 1932 Revolution, the Khana Ratsadon wanted the legal and political studies to be independent from "royalists'" Chulalongkorn University so they took the Faculty of Law and Political Science into their new Thammasat University in 1933.
In 1938, the Chulalongkorn University’s Preparatory School was founded to provide pre-collegiate education for its students. Those who managed to enter the university had to spent two years in the Preparatory School before going on to the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Preparatory School, however, ceased to be a university-owned preparatory school in 1947 and became independent Triam Udom Suksa School. Later, the university established Chulalongkorn University Demonstration School (CUD) system as laboratory primary and high schools for Faculty of Education.
During the 1930s to the 1950s Chulalongkorn University expanded to various fields including Pharmacy (1934), Veterinary Science (1935), Architecture (1939), Dentistry (1940), Commerce and Accountancy (1943), and Education (1957). In 1943, however, the regency government under General Phibun separated the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Science to become the University of Medical Sciences (now Mahidol University).
Chulalongkorn University managed to claim back some of its lost faculties. In 1948, the Faculty of Political Science was re-established. In 1967, the Faculty of Veterinary Science was returned from Kasetsart University and the Faculty of Medicine at Chulalongkorn Hospital was moved from University of Medical Sciences to Chulalongkorn University. In 1972, the Faculty of Dentistry and Faculty of Pharmacy were retrieved.

[edit] Academics

Chulalongkorn University main auditorium
Faculty of Dentistry
Faculty of Architecture
Faculty of Veterinary Science
Students dormitory
Chulalongkorn University consists of 20 faculties and schools which function as a teaching and researching unit[7]:
  • Faculty of Allied Health Sciences
  • Faculty of Architecture
  • Faculty of Arts
  • Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy
  • Faculty of Communication Arts
  • Faculty of Dentistry
  • Faculty of Economics
  • Faculty of Education
  • Faculty of Engineering
  • Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts
However, according to university council agreement on October 21, 2009,[8] the Office of Commission on Agricultural Resource Education (OCARE), which will be transformed into "Faculty of Food and Agriculture" in the future, was established. Despite the name, the new "office" is able to teach and research about food, agriculture and agricultural management in the same way as other faculties. It receives students from two groups. The first group comes from Northern Thailand provinces (Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit) which are target area of university's agricultural promotion. The second one comes from other provinces.
Other institutions which are associated with the university include:
  • Chulalongkorn University Demonstrational Schools (CUD)
  • The Petroleum and Petrochemical College
  • The College of Public Health Science
  • College of Population Studies
  • Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institite
  • The Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
  • Aquatic Resources Research Institute, Environmental Research Institute
  • Social Research Institute, Institute of Asian Studies
  • Transportation Institute
  • Sasin Business School (Sasin Business School was founded by Chulalongkorn University with the support and collaboration of the Kellogg School of Management and the Wharton Business School.)

[edit] Rankings

In 2010 the QS World University Rankings[9] ranked Chulalongkorn University 180th in the world.

[edit] Notable Faculty and Alumni

[edit] Honorary Degrees

The University has given honorary degrees to heads of state and other international dignitaries, including two US Presidents:

[edit] Traditions

Chulalongkorn University student traditions include:
  • Chula–Thammasat Traditional Football Match: The annual football match between Chulalongkorn University and Thammasat University in January at Suphashalasai Stadium. It first started in 1934.
  • Loy Krathong: an annual celebration of the full moon night, which usually falls on the first full moon day in November. Since the festival is open to the public, it attracts many people, especially Chulalongkorn students and faculty and those who live in downtown Bangkok, to come to the university to float their Krathongs on the university's pond.
  • Chulalongkorn Academic Exhibition: a triennial academic and research exhibition presented by Chulalongkorn University's students and faculty. It is regarded as one of the most important academic fairs in Thailand.

[edit] Student activities and clubs

The University is host to 40 student clubs, including the Buddhism and Tradition Club, the Religious Studies Club, the Mind Study Club, and the Thai Classical Music Club.[10] Chulalongkorn also has a Morals Network, which actively campaigns to protect student activities from damaging the university's reputation. The University's Cheer Club annually organizes the Chula-Thammasat Traditional Football Match.

[edit] Symbols

[edit] Phra Kiao

Since the establishment of the Royal Pages School, the former name of the university, Chulalongkorn authorized the use of his personal emblem as school emblem.[11] The emblem is 'Phra Kiao', or Thai style coronet which is made to fit hair topknot. As the school was transformed into university, the King of Thailand authorized the use of Phra Kiao until nowadays. Today, Phra Kiao is used in formal letters, transcripts, souvenirs made by university and student uniforms.

[edit] Student Uniform

Undergraduate students are required to wear uniform as they are studying, taking examinations and contacting the university. For graduate students, collared or polo shirt and dark trousers are required for male students while plain blouse with properly long skirt are required for female students.
Originally, the university uniform was adapted from uniform worn by Chulalongkorn's heirs.[12] Later, the uniform was changed into more modernized version but original one is reserved as a formal uniform. Formal uniform is usually worn by student leaders and bachelor graduates.
Today, the normal uniform for male undergraduate students are plain white shirt with long or short sleeves and black (or dark blue) trousers. Dark blue necktie with colored Phra Kiao in its front is required for first year students but optional for higher years. However, black tie with silver Phra Kiao pin is usually used by higher year students in some faculties. For female students, they are required to wear short-sleeved blouse with fold along the spine. The buttons must be made of metal and Phra Kiao emblem must be pinned on right chest. The dark (slightly light) blue or black pleated skirt and any black, white, brown shoes that conceal heels are also required. For female first year students, white leather shoes are required.[13] Chulalongkorn University's uniform has long been template of uniforms used in other universities in Thailand.

[edit] Graduation Gown

There are also special graduation gown made of fine white net formed into long sleeved gown. Additional strip made by black, red or pink-colored cloth and decorated with gold-colored ribbon is added to the outer rim of the gown. For bachelor and master graduates, black strip is used. While for doctor graduates and faculty, red and pink are used respectively. Yellow rim is used specially for royals of Chakri Dynasty.
In addition, the colored thread or ribbon is added to the center of the strip longitudinally, according to graduated discipline. The gown was authorized for use by Vajiravudh.[14]

[edit] Rain Tree

Rain tree is very common on the university campus. It was deeply associated to the university since the past. Fresh green leaves in the beginning of the semester represent freshmen's enjoyment. As the tree produces slimy pods and sheds leaves, the below ground becomes dirty and slippery. As a simile, it is described as a warning to students to be ready for examination. When they walk carefully, they do not slip (able to pass examination). Whereas if they walk carelessly, they would slip and get injured (unable to pass examination).[15]
Around 1937-1957, many of rain trees were to be cut down to allocate the area for new buildings and enhance cleanliness. The King Bhumibol Adulyadej recognized the dramatic decrease of rain tree. Hence on January 15, 1962 the king planted his five trees that he brought from Hua Hin in front of the university auditorium and said "Hence I give these five trees as eternal memorial" (จึงขอฝากต้นไม้ไว้ห้าต้นให้เป็นเครื่องเตือนใจตลอดกาล).

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